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Spanish-born, English-trained painter Philip Hermogenes Calderon was an important figure in the 19th century. He began his career in the Pre-Raphaelite style and later turned to the historical genre. In 1857, he became the Keeper of the Royal Academy in London. Among his many accolades, he received the Turner Prize. Despite the success of his work, however, Calderon was largely forgotten.

The artist's early works were not very popular, but they were admired by collectors and public figures. His most famous work, 'Broken Vows' (London, Tate), depicted a woman overhearing her lover betraying her. His later paintings are more classical in style and are influenced by his friendship with Frederic Leighton. A bequest by Edward Chantrey secured a painting of St Elizabeth of Hungary as part of the national collection. Despite its ecclesiastical subject matter, Calderon's works are also displayed in the Tate Gallery, a contemporary gallery in the capital.

The earliest known work by Calderon is 'By the Waters of Babylon' (1851). The artist's father was a Spanish Roman Catholic priest who converted to Anglicanism. His mother was French. His father studied in Paris with Francois-Edouard Picot, before continuing his studies in the United Kingdom. His work at the Royal Academy was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1853. After the war, he returned to France and continued to exhibit his work there until his death in 1867.

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