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One of the most important artists of the Italian Renaissance was Giovanni Fattori. He was an important leader of the Macchiaioli group of painters. Most of his work featured military and historical subjects

In 1847, Fattori began painting as an apprentice to a local painter in Livorno. In 1848, his father sent him to Florence to study art there. He was involved in a variety of liberal and progressive groups, including the Italian National Society. In Florence, he first met Macchiaioli in a cafè Michelangiolo. In 1850, he returned to Livorno and completed his studies there. In 1859, he joined the Macchiaioli and became a member of the group.

After losing his wife to tuberculosis in 1867, Fattori began painting again. His relationship with Amalia Nollemberg was strained, and he was forced to teach private lessons to her. He eventually married Marianna Bigozzi, who remained devoted to him, although her death in 1903 left him devastated. After Fattori's marriage to Marianna Bigozzi, he continued teaching at the Accademia and painted portraits of family members. In 1907, he married Fanny Martelli, a close family friend. She died a year later.

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